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Kedi ve Tilki Masalı İngilizce Kısa
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Balonla beş Hafta İngilizce Kitap özeti
Five Weeks in a Balloon, or, Journeys and Discoveries in Africa by Three Englishmen (French: Cinq semaines en ballon) is an adventure novel by Jules Verne.
It is the first Verne novel in which he perfected the “ingredients” of his later work, skillfully mixing a plot full of adventure and twists that hold the reader’s interest with passages of technical, geographic, and historic description. The book gives readers a glimpse of the exploration of Africa, which was still not completely known to Europeans of the time, with explorers traveling all over the continent in search of its secrets. Public interest in fanciful tales of African exploration was at its height, and the book was an instant hit; it made Verne financially independent and got him a contract with Jules Hetzel’s publishing house, which put out several dozen more works of his for over forty years afterward.
Plot summary A scholar, Dr. Samuel Ferguson, accompanied by his manservant Joe and his friend Richard “Dick” Kennedy, sets out to travel across the African continent — still not fully explored — with the help of a hot-air balloon filled with hydrogen. He has invented a mechanism that, by eliminating the need to release gas or throw ballast overboard to control his altitude, allows very long trips to be taken. This voyage is meant to link together the voyages of Sir Richard Burton and John Hanning Speke in East Africa with those of Heinrich Barth in the regions of the Sahara and Chad. The trip begins in Zanzibar on the east coast, and passes across Lake Victoria, Lake Chad, Agadez, Timbuktu, Djenné and Ségou to St Louis in modern day Senegal on the west coast. The book describes the unknown interior of Africa near modern day Central African Republic as a desert, when it is actually savanna.
A good deal of the initial exploration is to focus on the finding of the source of the Nile, an event that occurs in chapter 18 (out of 43). The second leg is to link up the other explorers. There are numerous scenes of adventure, composed of either a conflict with a native or a conflict with the environment. Some examples include:
- Rescuing of a missionary from a tribe that was preparing to sacrifice him.
- Running out of water while stranded, windless, over the Sahara.
- An attack on the balloon by condors, leading to a dramatic action as Joe leaps out of the balloon.
- The actions taken to rescue Joe later.
- Narrowly escaping the remnants of a militant army as the balloon dwindles to nothingness with the loss of hydrogen.
In all these adventures, the protagonists overcome by continued perseverance more than anything else. The novel is filled with coincidental moments where trouble is avoided because wind catches up at just the right time, or the characters look in just the right direction. There are frequent references to a higher power watching out for them, as tidy an explanation as any. The balloon itself ultimately fails before the end, but makes it far enough across to get the protagonists to friendly lands, and eventually back to England, therefore succeeding in the expedition. The story abruptly ends after the African trip, with only a brief synopsis of what follows.
Themes of the novel
The novel has several themes and motifs central to European exploration: scientific achievement, the otherworldliness of the region explored, and the question of how much shared humanity there is between the explorers and the natives. The balloon is a straight allegory of scientific achievement overcoming the wild, as well as overcoming the limitations of the Western world. Most of the Africans are contrasted as being superstitious and quick to worship any object cast down from the balloon, though Verne does not generalize this to all religion. The treatment of animals is in line with the image of the Great White Hunter. This is most obvious by Dick’s statement, upon seeing a herd of elephants, “Oh, what magnificent elephants! Is there no way to get a little shooting?” These aspects are both tied into the explorers being above, quite literally in this novel, the region they are traveling across, and Verne makes them worthy of their status through their technological achievements. As one scene where the explorers confuse baboons for black men illustrates, Africa is approached as an alien place. The explorers do not, and maybe cannot, fully understand the people they are interacting with (or, as the case may be, avoiding). Only later in the novel do they comment on the similarities between themselves and the people they have flown over, when they hold that the Africans’ ways of war are not one whit worse than white men’s, only filthier. In most scenes, neither the Africans nor the explorers show much compassion for the other. In Chapter 16, the Doctor equates Africa to the “Last Machine”, which will serve as the place of human growth after the Americas are dry. His depiction is of an Africa tamed and cultivated over years to come.
Inconsistent scientific/technological reference
This section may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. More details may be available on the talk page. (January 2010) The description of the apparatus used to heat the hydrogen gas in the balloon is deeply flawed. Jules Verne states that it uses a powerful electric battery to electrolyze water into hydrogen and oxygen, and then burns resulting hydrogen in a blow-pipe. He also says that the apparatus weighs 700 pounds (including the battery) and it is able to process 25 gallons of water. This is physically impossible. Even using state-of-the-art 21st century batteries (e.g. lithium-ion batteries) and assuming zero losses, one needs over 4000 pounds of batteries to electrolyze that much water. This number should be increased by at least a factor of five if authentic mid-19th century batteries are to be used. It would have been far more realistic simply to electrolyze the water up front and to load a tank of compressed hydrogen onto the balloon (electrolysis of that quantity of water produces less than 25 pounds of hydrogen). Further, it would have been more efficient to use the energy contained in the battery to heat the gas directly. Electrolysis of water is not 100% efficient. So some of the energy contained in the battery is wasted and the heat generated by burning the obtained hydrogen is less than the heat that could have been obtained by simply using a resistance connected to the battery. In fact, Verne implies that the described device is a perpetual motion machine, since he implies that greater energy can be obtained by electrolysis than could have been obtained from the battery directly: if this were true, then the obtained hydrogen could be used to boil water to create steam to power an electrical generator to create more electricity for the battery. This may have been a deliberate joke by Verne. Though the novel goes into great detail with much of the calculations involving the lift power of the hydrogen balloon, and how to obtain the proper amount of volume through changes in temperature, there are gaps in the logic. The balloon rises up when heated, and lowers as it is allowed to cool. This pattern is used as numerous plot points and is shown to be a somewhat quick process of cooling. At night, however, there is little mention of them maintaining the temperature through the night. Another gap in the scientific logic is the lack of reference to the effect of atmospheric temperature on the balloon itself, though the temperature is referenced as affecting the heating coil. And it would be very dangerous to light a fire in the nacelle under a balloon filled with hydrogen. Further, in Chapter 41, the load carried is progressively reduced in order to allow the balloon to rise higher and higher. But in fact a single load reduction would have been sufficient, because at that point the lift of the balloon would have exceeded the weight and it would have continued to rise until the volume of gas was reduced. (The density of air decreases with increasing altitude, thus reducing the lift at constant balloon volume, but the balloon would expand proportionately, due to decreasing air pressure, thus maintaining constant total lift.) In Chapter 26, it says the doctor takes the balloon up to five miles (8 km). Later, in Chapter 29, in order to get over Mount Mendif, the doctor “by means of a temperature increased to one hundred and eighty degrees, gave the balloon a fresh ascensional force of nearly sixteen hundred pounds, and it went up to an elevation of more than eight thousand feet” which is noted as being “the greatest height attained during the journey.” If this is meant to imply that the doctor went eight thousand feet above Mount Mendif, at a height greater than five miles (8 km), Jules Verne would have greatly underestimated the drop in temperature and how much heat would have been required to keep the balloon at that height for any length of time. At the time when the book was first written, lands to the north and northwest of Lake Victoria were still poorly known to Europeans. Jules Verne makes a few inaccurate predictions here, such as placing the source of the Nile river at 2°40′N (instead of 0°45′N); claiming that this source is just over 90 miles (140 km) from of Gondokoro (the actual distance is closer to 300 miles); not mentioning Lake Albert at all (it was not discovered by Europeans until after the publication of the book). Much of the geography described further in the book is completely fictional. For example, coordinates given for the “desert oasis” in chapter 27 correspond to a location in a savanna region of southern Chad, less than twenty miles (32 km) from a big river.
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Pinokyo Kitap Özeti İngilizce
|Pinocchio Stories Geppetto, a poor old wood carver, was making a puppet from a tree branch. “You shall be my little boy,” he said to the puppet, “and I shall call you Pinocchio.” He worked for hours, carefully carving each detail. When he reached the mouth, the puppet started making faces at Geppetto. “Stop that, you naughty boy,” Geppetto scolded, “Stop that at once !” “I won stop !” cried Pinocchio. “You can talk !” exclaimed Geppetto. “Of course I can, silly,” said the puppet. “Youve given me a mouth to talk with.” Pinocchio rose to his feet and danced on the table top. “Look what I can do !” he squealed. “Pinocchio, this is not the time to dance,” Geppetto explained. “You must get a good nights rest. Tomorrow you will start going to school with the real boys. You will learn many things, including how to behave.” On his way to school the next morning, Pinocchio stopped to see a puppet show. “I can dance and sing better than those puppets and I don need strings,” boasted Pinocchio. He climbed onto the stage. “Get off my stage,” roared the Puppet Master. Then he noticed how much the crowd liked Pinocchio. He did not say anything and let Pinocchio stay. “Here, youve earned five copper coins,” the Puppet Master told Pinocchio. “Take these coins and go straight home,” said the Puppet Master. Pinocchio put the coins into his sack. He did not go very far before he met a lame Fox and a blind Cat. Knowing that Pinocchio had money, they pretended to be his friends. “Come with us. Well teach you how to turn those copper pieces into gold,” coaxed the sneaky Cat. “We want to help you get rich. Plant your coins under this magic tree. In a few hours theyll turn to gold,” said the Fox. “Show me where,” said Pinocchio excitedly. The Cat and Fox pointed to a patch of loose dirt. Pinocchio dug a hole and put the sack in it, marking the spot with a stone. “Splendid !” exclaimed the Cat. “Now lets go to the inn for supper.” After supper, the Fox and Cat, who weren really lame or blind, quickly snuck away and disguised themselves as thieves. They hid by the tree waiting for Pinocchio to come back and dig up the money. After Pinocchio dug up the coins they pounced on him. “Give us your money !” they . ordered. But Pinocchio held the sack between his teeth and resisted to give the sack to them. Again they demanded, “Give us your money !” Pinocchios Guardian Fairy, who was dressed all in blue and had blue hair, sent her dog, Rufus, to chase the Fox and Cat away. She ordered . Rufus to bring Pinocchio back to her castle. “Please sit down,” she told Pinocchio. Rufus kept one eye open to watch what was going on. “Why didn you go to school today?” she asked Pinocchio in a sweet voice. “I did,” answered Pinocchio. Just then, his nose shot out like a tree branch. “Whats happening to my nose?” he cried. “Every time you tell a lie, your nose will grow. When you tell the truth, it will shrink,” said the Blue Fairy. “Pinocchio, you can only become a real boy if you learn how to be brave, honest and generous.” The Blue Fairy told Pinocchio to go home and not to stop for any reason. Pinocchio tried to remember what the Blue Fairy told him. On the way to home he met some boys. “Come with us,” said the boys. “We know a wonderful place filled with games, giant cakes, pretty candies, and circuses.” The boys didn know that if you were bad, you were turned into donkeys and trained for the circus. It was not very long before the boys began changing into donkeys. “Thats what happens to bad boys,” snarled the Circus Master as he made Pinocchio jump through a hoop. Pinocchio could only grow a donkeys ears, feet, and tail, because he was made of wood. The Circus Master couldn sell him to any circus. He threw Pinocchio into the sea. The instant Pinocchio hit the water, the donkey tail fell off and his own ears and feet came back. He swam for a very long time. Just when he couldn swim any longer, he was swallowed by a great whale. “Its dark here,” scared Pinocchio said. Pinocchio kept floating deep into the whales stomach. “Whos there by the light?” called Pinocchio, his voice echoing. “Pinocchio, is that you?” asked a tired voice. “Father, you e alive !” Pinocchio shouted with joy. He wasn scared anymore. Pinocchio helped Geppetto build a big raft that would hold both of them. When the raft was finished, Pinocchio tickled the whale. “Hold tight, Father. When he sneezes, hell blow us out of here !” cried Pinocchio. Home at last, Geppetto tucked Pinocchio into his bed. “Pinocchio, today you were brave, honest and generous,” Geppetto said. “You are my son and I love you.” Pinocchio remembered what the Blue Fairy told him. “Father, now that Ive proven myself, Im waiting for something to happen,” he whispered as he drifted off to sleep. The next morning Pinocchio came running down the steps, jumping and waving his arms. I He ran to Geppetto shouting, “Look Father, Im a real boy !”|
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İngilizce Balığın Yaşamı Hayatı
Fish are animals that live in water and breathe using gills. Water goes in through the mouth and out through the gills, which take oxygen from the water. Most fish swim by moving their tail (also called the caudal fin) left and right. There are many kinds of fish; some have bones but others, like sharks and rays have no bones, only cartilage. The biggest fish in the world is the Whale Shark; it is a shark but not a whale. The whale shark is up to 46 feet (14 m) long and weighs up to 15 tons.İngilizce Balığın Yaşamı Hayatı
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The bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, is a magnificent bird of prey that is native to North America. This majestic eagle is not really bald; white feathers cover its head. The derivation of the name “bald” is from an obsolete English word meaning white. The bald eagle has been the national symbol of the USA since 1782.Habitat: The bald eagle lives near rivers and large lakes, as it catches most of its food in the water. Diet: Eagles are carnivores (meat-eaters) and hunt during the day (they are diurnal). They eat mostly fish. They also hunt and scavenge small mammals, snakes, and other birds. Anatomy: Bald eagles have a long, downward-curving yellow bill, and large, keen eyes. These strong fliers have white feathers on their head, tail, and wing tips; the body has brown feathers. The feet have knife-like talons. Eagles have about 7,000 feathers. Adult eagles have a 7 ft (2.3 m) wingspan. The females are 30% larger than the males. Nest and Eggs: Bald eagles build an enormous nest from twigs and leaves. The nest can be up to eight feet across and may weigh a ton! Nests are located high from the ground, either in large trees or on cliffs. Eagles may use the same enormous nest over and over again for years. A clutch of 1 to 3 eggs eggs is laid by the female. The incubation period is from 1 to 1 1/2 months. Both males and females incubate the eggs. They both feed the hatchlings until they learn to fly (fledge).
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İngilizce Pengueni hayatı İngilizce
The Emperor Penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri, is the largest penguin. Penguins are birds that cannot fly, but penguins swim very well and spend most of their lives in the sea. Habitat: The Emperor Penguin lives in colonies on pack ice in Antarctica. It is kept warm in the harsh environment by a thick layer of blubber (fat) and by insulating down (feathers). Feathers: Penguins have shiny, waterproof feathers that help keep their skin dry. They have more feathers than most other birds – about 70 feathers per square inch. Each year, penguins molt, losing their old feathers and growing new ones. Anatomy: The Emperor Penguin is up to 3.7 feet (1.1 m) tall and weighs up to 65 pounds (30 kg); this about half the size of an adult person. Males and females look very similar. Like all penguins, Emperor Penguins have a big head, a short, thick neck, a streamlined shape, a short, wedge-shaped tail, and tiny, flipper-like wings. They have webbed feet which they use for swimming. Penguins are countershaded; they have a lighter color on the belly and a darker color on their back; this coloration helps camouflage them when they are in the water, hiding them from predators. Diet: Emperor Penguins are carnivores (meat-eaters) who hunt in the sea. They eat fish and squid. Reproduction: After the female lays a single egg, she goes off to sea. The male incubates the egg, keeping it warm on his feet, enveloped by the stomach, in a “brood pouch” for 72 days (during the coldest part of the Antarctic year). He feeds his chick with “milk” produced by a gland in his esophagus; during this time, he loses half his body weight.
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İngilizce Ailemizi Tanıyalım
İngilizce Aile Bireyleri Yazılışı Ve Söylenişi
Father / fa:dı/ : baba
Mother / madı/ : anne
Brother / bradı/ : erkek kardeş
Sister / sistı/ : kız kardeş
Grandmother / grandma:dı/ : büyük anne
Grandfather / grandfa:dı/ : büyük baba
Uncle / ankıl/ : dayı, amca
Aunt / a:nt/ : teyze, hala
Wife / wayf / : kadın eş
Husband / hazbınd/ : erkek eş , koca
Daughter / do:tı/ : kız evlat
Son / san/ : oğul
Parents / peırınts/ : evebeyn
Friend / frend/ : arkadaş
Cousin / k^z’ın/ : kuzen
Elder sister / el’dır sistı/ : abla
Elder brother / el’dır bradı/ : ağabey, abi
Bride / brayd/ : gelin
Son-in-law / san inlo/ : damat
Step mother,father / step madı,fa:dı/ : üvey anne, baba
Step sister,brother / step sistı, bradı/ : üvey kız yada
üvey erkek kardeş
Father in law / fa:dı inlo/ : kayınpeder
Mother-in-law / madı inlo/ : kaynana
Darling / darling/ : sevgili/ m/
Neighbour / neybır/ : komşu
Baby / beybi/ : bebek
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Uyuyan Güzel Masalı İngilizce
Once upon a time, there was a King and Queen. And when their baby daughter was born they were so happy they decided to have a big party. They invited all their family, all their friends and all the fairies in the land. Now there were 13 fairies altogether but the king but queen only invited 12. They forgot about the 13th. And that was something they should not have done.
Well, it was a splendid party! There were silver dishes piled high with delicious food and golden plates at every place. And when everyone had finished eating, the fairies gathered around the baby’s cradle and they each made a magic wish. The princess shall be beautiful said the first. And happy, said the second. And kind, said the third. And so they went on. The princess was to be brave, and clever and truthful. She was to have a sweet singing voice and light dancing feet
And, then, just as the twelfth fairy was about to make her wish, in came the thirteenth. She was furious, because she had not been invited to the party. Here is my wish, she said. “When the princess is 16 years old, she will prick her finger on a spindle and she will die.” And with that, the thirteenth fairy vanished.
hen the 12th fairy said, “I cannot change all of the wicked fairies powerful magic.” So the princess will prick her finger but she will not die! She slept for a hundred years. The king and queen thanked the fairy for her kindness but they were not happy. They did not want their daughter to sleep for a hundred years. So they ordered that every spinning wheel and spindle in the land must be chopped up and burnt. Then they thought that the princess was safe.
The years passed and the princess grew up. She was very beautiful and clever at lots of different things. She was, in fact, everything the fairies had wished her to be. On her sixteenth birthday, the princess was exploring the castle when she came to a little room at the top of a tall tower. And in that room was an old woman sitting by a spinning wheel. “What are you doing?” asked the princess?”
“I am spinning,” said the old woman, who was really the wicked thirteenth fairy, “would you like to try?”
“Oh yes,” said the princess, and she sat down by the spinning wheel. But as soon as she touched the spindle, the sharp point pricked her finger and she fell asleep.
And the old woman vanished. At that same moment, the king and the queen, the servants, the cats and the dogs all fell asleep! Even the fire stopped burning and the roasting meat stopped sizzling. Everything slept.
Then a hedge of wild roses grew up around the castle. It grew and it grew until the castle was hidden.
One hundred years passed and then a prince came riding by and saw the top of the tower rising up above the hedge of roses. How strange, he said, I never knew there was a castle here!
He jumped off his horse and lifted his sword to cut away the hedge. But as soon as the sword touched the branch, a path opened up in front of him. So prince walked freely through the hedge. He entered castle, and walked from room to room. Imagine his surprise, everyone and everything was fast asleep.
At last he entered a little room at the end of a tall tower and he saw the sleeping princess. She was so very beautiful that he bent down and kissed her. Then the spell was broken and the princess opened her eyes.
At the same moment, everyone and everything in the castle awoke! The king yawned, the queen blinked, the cats had a good stretch and the dogs wagged their tails.
The servants began to work, the fire began to flame, and the roasting meat began to sizzle. A hundred years had not changed anyone or anything.
And what happened next? Why the beautiful princess married the prince, who had woken her from such a long deep sleep.
By Charles Perrault
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